Plastic surgeon Thessaloniki, Greece, Dr. Ioannis Gkotsikas



FTM Top Surgery


procedure time

2 - 3 hours



hospital stay

1 night

time off work

10 - 14 days

Female to Male Top surgery

Gender reassignment surgery from female to male includes breast, outer genital organ and face masculinization.
Transgender mastectomy (Top surgery) is the most common surgical intervention in individuals with gender dysforia and the first step in the genter transformation process.
There are different surgical options available today. The techique that we choose to use depend mainly on breast size and degree of breast ptosis. Transgender mastectomy aims to:

  • remove all breast tissue and redundant skin.
  • reshape and move the nipple in a way that reflects the male anatomy and, also, preserve the nipple’s sensitivity, when possible.

Female to male breast surgery is usually performed in adult individuals, before or after any hormonal therapy. A psychiatric evaluation is also necessary in order to proceed with surgery.

The surgical procedure

Surgery is performed under general anesthesia and lasts approximately 2-3 hours, depending on the techique that we use. All removed breast tissue is always sent for biopsy. The patient remains at the hospital usually for one night for observation and returns home the next day. Antibiotics are prescribed and specific instructions are given for the next few days.


The patient returns home with an elastic bandage around the chest and two small drains coming out of the operated area in order to avoid blood and other fluid collection. These drains are removed after 2-3 days and the elastic bandage is then replaced by an elastic garment that should be used for 4-6 weeks for better healing. Usually the patient can return to everyday activities after 5-7 days. Exercise and heavy lifting is allowed one month after surgery.

Which are the possible complications after transgender mastectomy?

Possible complications after top surgery include hematoma and nipple loss (necrosis). These are rather uncommon and can be avoided when the right techique is used and when the patient conforms accordingly.
Bad healing can lead to dysmorphic scars after this type of surgery. In order to achieve the best possible healing conditions the doctor will give you care instructions with silicon sheets and healing cremes.
Small assymetries in breast appearence may occur after the healing procedure is concluded, usually 12-18 months post surgery. These can either be camouflaged by natural hair growth or corrected with a small surgical procedure under local anesthesia.

Top surgery cost

The total cost of top surgery varies depending on the surgical technique which, in its turn, depends on anatomical factors such as breast size and ptosis, skin elasticity etc. This can only be determined after your consultation, during which you discuss the procedure in depth with the plastic surgeon and all your possible questions are thoroughly adressed.

Before & after photos

Transgender mastectomy
Female to male top surgery. Double incision and free nipple transfer. Before and six months after surgery.
Female to Male Top Surgery
FTM top surgery. Keyhole technique. Before and four months after surgery.


Duration of surgery

2 - 3 hours



Stay at the clinic

1 night

Return to work

10 - 14 days


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